We have all suffered the disappointment of nurturing plants in our garden only to find pests arrive or disease strikes and we lose most, if not all, the crop. The following year we are determined to be more vigilant. We carefully watch for any sign of pests. Before they get out of control we reach for the nearest organic spray and destroy them, only to be surprised in a week or so when we notice the infestation is worse than ever.
We deal with integrated pest management:
1. It is a strategy for managing pest populations by taking advantage of all available control measures;
2. It uses control measures which include physical, cultural, biological, varietal selection as well as chemical methods where organically acceptable, eg pyrethrum, derris dust, etc.
3. It aims to manage pest populations rather than eradicate them.
4. It works with and protects the ecology of the garden and its environment.
5. Chemicals such as pyrethrum and derris dust are only used as a very last resort and are used very selectively to minimize ecological damage and the build up of chemical resistance in pests.
What we have to help put you for Crop pests and diseases control management:
Good knowledge of the pests which affect gardens and farms:
1. Be able to identify the pest;
2. Know its life cycle; and,
3. Know how fast it can build up.
A monitoring strategy:
1. A timetable for monitoring at critical times;
2.A sampling method eg inspection of plants, sticky traps, light traps etc.
Aware of all the possible control methods:
1. Natural enemies
2. Introduced enemies eg Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis)
3. Weed control
4. Companion planting
2. Chooks, blue tongue lizards etc
3. Destruction of overwintering habitat for pests
1. Pest resistant plants
2. Pest resistant root stocks (eg woolly aphid resistant apple root stock, grape, phylloxera resistant root stock)
Chemical controls (only to be used as a very last resort):
1. Whether they are they allowed under the National Standard;
2. Whether they are registered with APVMA;
3. The frequency of application required;
4. Their mode of action to avoid problems with pest and disease resistance
5. Their effects on other (non-target organisms)
|Removing/Killing diseased animals/Quarantine||Within farmed animals. The first precaution should be to separate ill, or diseased animals from others, so as to reduce the risk of diseases spreading|
|Vaccination||Vaccinnation can greatly reduces the risk of disease that animals are susceptible to. In developing countries for small holders and farmers it can be probitively expensive|
|Pest resistant crops||By selecting or buying certain varities of seed which have been engineered to be more robust to pests, extreme weath, or qulity of soil (either by making hybrids or GM)
These seeds can be out of the budget range of a smallholder or rural developing farmer.
|Cross mating||Cross mating of plant varieties, can allow a farmer to produce more resistant crops to pests and diseases|
|Improved storage and management||Pest such as rodents or dampness can ruin crops which are being kept on storage.|
Note: Our system resulted into increase by 50% to 90% in harvest in all major fruits and 2 to 3 times more in assorted vegetables.