Healthy Soil and Management:
Healthy soil can improve crop and livestock production. The publications and other resources listed here offer information on how to assess, improve and maintain soil health for both croplands and pastures. Soil management can also play an important role in protecting water quality, and additional resources are listed on that topic.
Soil drainage conditions exert a major influence on the morphology of the soil profile. An experienced evaluator can uncover important information on soil water and air movement by careful observation of soil material, and the properties and sequences of soil horizons at a site.
These observations can form a reliable basis for designing appropriate wastewater systems. Of the many soil morphological properties, soil color, structure, consistence, texture and depth of plant growth are the most often used indicators of soil hydrologic conditions to determining site suitability for wastewater treatment.
Water Treatment Technologies
This phase is the close relationship between agricultural production, soil moisture, crop and livestock water use, and water resources. As anyone who has tried to farm during a prolonged drought can testify, crop production depends on good management of soil moisture, whether from rain or supplemental irrigation. Livestock need clean water for healthy and productive growth. Yet, crop and livestock production can harm water quality unless good soil and water conservation practices are required.
Based on the information gathered for this report, precipitation/co precipitation is frequently used to treat arsenic-contaminated water, and hardness or heavy metals. Systems using this technology generally require skilled operators; therefore, precipitation/co precipitation is more cost effective at a large scale where labor costs can be spread over a larger amount of treated water produced. The effectiveness of adsorption and ion exchange for arsenic treatment is more likely than precipitation/co precipitation. Adsorption and ion exchange tend to be used more often when arsenic is the only contaminant to be treated. Membrane filtration is used less frequently because it tends to have higher costs and produce a larger volume of residuals than other arsenic treatment technologies.
Innovative technologies, such as permeable reactive barriers, biological treatment, phytoremediation, are also being used to treat arsenic-contaminated soil, waste, and water. Permeable reactive barriers are used to treat groundwater in situ. This technology tends to have lower operation and maintenance costs than ex situ (pump and treat) technologies, and typically requires a treatment time of many years.
Biological treatment for arsenic is used primarily to treat water above-ground in processes that use microorganisms to enhance precipitation/coprecipitation. Bioleaching of arsenic from soil has also been tested on a bench scale. This technology may require pretreatment or addition of nutrients and other treatment agents to encourage the growth of key microorganisms.
Treatment Involves the use of microorganisms that act directly on contaminant species or create ambient conditions that cause the contaminant to leach from soil or precipitate/coprecipitate from water.
Note: Our system resulted into increase by 50% to 90% in harvest in all major fruits and 2 to 3 times more in assorted vegetables.